Material determination is a standard SAP functionality which can be used to determine an alternate material instead the material that has been entered in the sales order. We can have one or many alternative materials available for a given selected material. If you have a single material as an alternate, this alternate material swaps the material entered in the sales order item. For example, this can be a new promotion material or a temporary new material.
Famous condition technique is used in material determination as well.
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Material Determination in SAP